“JAB, or your JOB”: compulsory vaccinations in the private workplace


We are all tired of the slowly diminishing but persistent pandemic. And more than ready to go back to “normal”.

But employers’ efforts to encourage or force employees to return to work present many challenges, such as those involving dealing with viruses and illnesses that employees can bring with them. Employers are rightly concerned about the well-being of their workforce and those with whom they come into contact. So many employers have asked if they can require employees to undergo a CDC-approved Covid-19 vaccination.

What follows abstract this complex subject under certain federal laws and North Carolina in the private workplace where there are at least 15 employees. It does not address government employment (which involves constitutional issues such as the Fourteenth Amendment “liberty” and “property”).

“Employment at will” is prevalent in North Carolina. This usually means that an employer (in the absence of a contract to the contrary) can fire an employee for any reason or whim, but not for any reason that is illegal or violates “public order”. The doctrine gives employers the right to dictate the legal conditions of employment. The law has less to say about these conditions than many people think, and usually allows an employer to determine where rights of some employees terminate and the interests other employees start.

Employers can decide that employees must get vaccinated against Covid-19 to protect the interests of other employees in not getting sick – subject to legal limits. Insistence on such a condition can come at a price; many employees may find it cumbersome or intolerable. The following focuses more on whether a private employer can legally insist on it rather than on the caution to do.

Employers, as a rule, may impose such a condition. But there are limits.


The Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) of 1990 prohibits covered employers from discriminating against applicants and employees on the basis of “disability”, some of whom may claim to have a disability that prevents them from being able to submit. safe to a Covid-. 19 vaccination. Such a claim requires an employer to determine whether it has a duty to provide the employee or the claimant with “reasonable accommodation” for the alleged disability.

Such accommodation – such as exemption from a vaccination requirement – may be required unless it inflicts “undue hardship” (that is to say, difficulty or significant expense) payable by the employer. Employers who insist on vaccinations should therefore expect some people to claim that they have a “disability” that entitles them to a waiver.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (“Title VII”) prohibits covered employers from discriminating against applicants and employees on the basis (in part) of “religion”. In this context, religion refers to sincere religious beliefs and practices, whether they are part of an “organized” religion (for example, Hinduism, Islam or Christianity) or some other sincere spiritual belief system. This also includes atheism, but do not simple political or personal beliefs or preferences, such as objections to vaccinations unrelated to religious faith; or, for a strange but real example, a “personal religious creed that Kozy Kitten People / Cat Food” contributes to an employee’s “state of well-being”.

As in the case of ADA, Title VII requires that a covered employer faced with a claim for entitlement to a “religious” exemption from a vaccination requirement to consider whether “reasonable accommodation” is required because covered employers are required, within reasonable limits, to accommodate persons who are sincerely held religious beliefs, unless this causes undue hardship (such as hardship which would impose a more than negligible cost to the employer’s operations or compromise safety in the workplace. job).

The Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act 2008 (“GINA”) prohibits covered employers from discriminating against applicants or employees on the basis of “genetic information”, for example., information about their own genetic tests, those of family members or the family’s medical history. Such discrimination may arise from immunization programs that involve medical screening issues, such as questions about the medical history or the immune system of an employee or members of their family.

GINA, according to the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, is not involved when an employer simply administers a Covid-19 vaccine, but risk-averse employers may prefer to request proof of vaccination instead of administering it themselves.

The NC law on the protection of disabled people prohibits covered employers[ing] to hire or consider employment or promotion “, terminate or otherwise discriminate against a qualified disabled person on the basis of a disabling condition. It generally applies to employers who employ” 15 or more full-time employees within the state “and imposes accommodation duties.”

Due to the different ways in which the required number of employees is counted, an employer could be covered by law but not by Title VII, or vice versa. North Carolina employers should therefore know which law applies to them so that they can know when reasonable accommodation is required.

The law of unintended consequences

Imposition of a obligatory vaccination policy may be legal, but may produce unintended consequences, such as insane employees and potential legal conflicts.

Smart employers can therefore opt for a policy that encourages employees to get the jab. This can result in almost as many vaccinations as the mandatory approach – and can do more to improve company cohesion and team spirit in these troubled times.

A clear written policy, in either case, should be prepared and implemented, once the employer has decided which approach best suits their goals.

This article originally appeared in the June 2021 issue of Business North Carolina.

© 2021 Ward and Smith, PA For more information on the issues described above, please contact Grant B. Osborne.

This article is not intended to give, and should not be relied upon, legal advice in any particular circumstance or fact. No action should be taken on the basis of the information in this article without obtaining the advice of a lawyer.

We are your established legal network with offices in Asheville, Greenville, New Bern, Raleigh and Wilmington, NC.

Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.